To Do Good or to Do Evil: A Christian Reflection on Moral Foundations

Note: this post is ended up being much longer (~4800 words) than I had intended for it to be. What can I say? This is a fascinating subject, and I couldn’t help myself. So, because it’s so long, I’ve divided it into chapters based on the sub-headings. Click on the bullet point below to skip ahead to the desired section. If you want to get my final say on the matter, feel free to skip to the last section. Thanks for stopping by!

I first stumbled upon Moral Foundations Theory when I read psychologist Jon Haidt’s The Righteous Mind at the beginning of 2013. I’ve revisited it a few times over the years, and it has really helped me in understanding the cultural foundations of where our notions of morality come from. In the last two years, I’ve experienced a renewed interest in my faith, and this got me thinking…what are the most important moral foundations for a Christian? As a Christian, what is the standard by which I should measure right and wrong?

Of course, the obvious Sunday school answer is, “The Bible!” But, as we’ll soon see, that answer is not so simple as it seems. In The Righteous Mind, Haidt makes a compelling argument about how we make moral judgments. He says that we have gut reactions, or what he calls “moral intuitions,” that determine our positions on right and wrong. Then, we use our reason to rationalize and justify why those positions make sense. “Our moral thinking,” says Haidt, “is much more like a politician searching for votes than a scientist searching for truth.”

As Christians, I think we do the same thing with The Bible. We tell ourselves that we’re merely being faithful to the Word, but the truth is that there are deep-seated unconscious reasons for our moral convictions–and we tend to go to the Scriptures only so that we might find evidence to support them. And, sure enough, there is Biblical evidence for every single one of these moral foundations–even the ones that often conflict with one another.

In this post, I would like to go through each of these five “moral foundations,” and discuss how appropriate it is for a professing Christian to hold them. What does the Bible say in support of each foundation? In what ways does a Biblical worldview challenge each foundation? How does the sociopolitical climate of today influence the moral foundation to which we as Christians are likely to gravitate? And, finally, which foundation–if any–should take precedence for the Christian over all the others? Let’s dig into it…

Care/Harm Foundation

The care/harm moral foundation suggests that behavior is wrong to the extent that it causes harm. If it doesn’t hurt anyone or anything, then it can’t be said to be wrong. Conversely, its positive character would be revealed in helping, or caring for, others. Right behavior is behavior that contributes to the well-being of others.

“‘Love the Lord your God with all your heart and with all your soul and with all your strength and with all your mind’; and, ‘Love your neighbor as yourself.’”

In Luke 10:25-28, Jesus affirms that love is the key to inheriting eternal life–love of God and love of neighbor. The implication, I think, is not that these are two separate loves but that they are really one in the same. We love God by loving our neighbor, for “Whoever claims to love God yet hates a brother or sister is a liar” (1 John 4:20). Jesus reiterates this dual command in Mark 12:28-34 and Matthew 22:34-40.

In Luke, Jesus goes on to tell a very famous story about what it means to be a good neighbor. A Samaritan, an outsider to the community, sees an Israelite in distress and goes out of his way to help him–even though other Israelites had simply passed by and ignored him (Luke 10:29-37). In this story, Jesus puts it simply: right behavior is helping people; wrong behavior is failing to do so. He proposes a similar moral injunction in his “least of these” illustration in Matthew 25:31-46–suggesting we will be judged based on how well we treat those who we tend to think of as “less” than us.

The Apostle Paul has a great deal to say regarding the care/harm foundation as well. “For the entire law,” he says–reiterating Jesus, “is fulfilled in keeping this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself”” (Galatians 5:14). So, he promotes the “care” part of this foundation, and then he also repudiates the “harm” part of this foundation. “Love does no harm to a neighbor. Therefore love is the fulfillment of the law” (Romans 13:10).

These texts, of course, merely scratch the surface of references to the Christian ethic of love pervasive in the Scriptures. Few would deny that love should be a key motivating force in Christian morality. And yet, there are circumstances in which Christians feel justified in causing harm. This is done not by denying the obligation to love but, rather, by reinventing the meaning of love.

We may deal harshly with people if we deem the treatment to be “for their own good.” This is manifest in the idea of “speaking the truth in love” (Ephesians 4:15) or in the idea that “the Lord disciplines those He loves” (Hebrews 12:6). This interpretation of “true love” can be seen in such contemporary acts as protesting at the funerals of gay soldiers. If we think that our behavior can bring about in the person a state that we believe will make them “better off,” we can easily justify it as love–even if it harms them in a direct and concrete way.

Fairness/Cheating Foundation

The fair/cheating foundation suggests that behavior is wrong to the extent that it causes inequity. If the behavior causes someone to be treated favorably to the detriment of another, then it is considered wrong. If the behavior treats all parties equally, then it’s right. In other words, from this perspective, morality is justice.

On the one hand, this moral foundation may be considered the backbone of liberation theology, or the “social justice” strain in contemporary Christian thought–perhaps embodied most strongly in the admonition from Micah 6:8…

He has shown you, O mortal, what is good.
    And what does the Lord require of you?
To act justly and to love mercy
    and to walk humbly[a] with your God.

Similar principles can be found in other prophetic texts, such as Isaiah 1:17, “ learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression, bring justice to the fatherless, plead the widow’s cause.” And, let’s not forget Jesus’s reclamation of the prophetic passage in Luke 4:18, “The Spirit of the Lord is on me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim freedom for the prisoners and recovery of sight for the blind, to set the oppressed free.” Clearly, a moral imperative in Christian thought is to bring about justice through righting wrongs and restoring balance of power.

There is another side to this notion of justice, though, that tends to find its place on the other end of the modern political spectrum. We mete out justice by “giving people what they deserve.” For example, Christians feel justified in advocating capital punishment, because they see it is fair. If we do not respond to the crime with an equitable punishment, we are being immoral.

The belief in justice among Christians can also take the form of buying into the “just world hypothesis,” assuming that society is already just because “God is in control” and God is a god of justice. If something is wrong in our lives, then, we must actually deserve it. A recent Washing Post article reported that “Christians are more than twice as likely to blame a person’s poverty on lack of effort.” Part of the justification for this comes from 2 Thessalonians 3:10, where Paul makes the passing remark, “The one who is unwilling to work shall not eat.”

“Do not be deceived,” Paul writes in Galatians 6:7, “God cannot be mocked. A man reaps what he sows.” Passages like these can be used to blame people for their own suffering. If God is just and you are suffering, then you must have done something to deserve it. If this sounds familiar, it’s because there is an entire book written on it. In the Book of Job, Job’s friends blame him for his predicament–although he is clearly innocent. They do this precisely because they believe that God is just and, therefore, Job must be receiving a punishment (Job 34:10-12).

“So listen to me, you men of understanding.
    Far be it from God to do evil,
    from the Almighty to do wrong.
11 He repays everyone for what they have done;
    he brings on them what their conduct deserves.
12 It is unthinkable that God would do wrong,
    that the Almighty would pervert justice.

Although most Christians read Job as an indication that temporal suffering and distress is not necessarily indicative of God’s punishment, Christians still use this kind of thinking to explain away negative events in the world–from Hurricane Katrina in New Orleans to the Ebola outbreak in Liberia. Human suffering is often still seen as God’s punishment for our sins.

Loyalty/Betrayal Foundation

The loyalty/betrayal moral foundation suggests that behavior is wrong if it somehow breaks the trust of the group. Doing something to benefit outsiders to the determinant of someone within our own tribe would be considered immoral. This type of moral motivation is seen in sports (rooting for the home team), in Patriotism (putting America first), and–yes–even in Christianity.

But you are a chosen people, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, God’s special possession, that you may declare the praises of him who called you out of darkness into his wonderful light.

The passage above from 1 Peter 2:9 embodies an important Christian ethic: that we are a “called out,” special people in God’s eyes. The church is considered the sacred “body of Christ,” (1 Corinthians 12:27) and there are many Scriptural admonitions to protect it against the encroachment of outsiders and the false doctrine they might bring in (2 Peter 2:1-3, 2 Timothy 4:3-4, Jude 3-5).

Furthermore, there is the exclusivity present in Jesus being “the only way to Heaven,” as supported by texts such as Acts 4:12: “Salvation is found in no one else, for there is no other name under heaven given to mankind by which we must be saved,” and Jesus’s famous proclamation in John 14:6: “I am the way and the truth and the life. No one comes to the Father except through me.”

Passages such as these reinforce ideas of tribalism and in-group morality, discounting those who fall outside of the umbrella of Christianity. We find justification in this kind of thinking for going to war against Islam, for spewing vile insults at atheists, and even for opposing immigration into America.

Of course, this disposition is awfully ironic given the nature of Jesus’s own ministry. From the story of the woman at the well (John 4) to his habit of dining with the “tax collectors and sinners” (Matthew 9:10-17, Mark 2:15-22, Luke 5:29-39), Jesus was all about spending time with outsiders. He regularly interacted with the Samaritans (John 4:9), women (Luke 8:2-3), tax collectors (Matt. 9:10), lepers (Mark 14:3), the blind, the lame, the deaf, and the poor (Luke 7:22). In the parable of the banquet (Luke 14:15-24), Jesus seems to suggest that it’s the dregs of society who will be welcome in his kingdom:

‘Go out quickly into the streets and alleys of the town and bring in the poor, the crippled, the blind and the lame.’

Of course, there are also the passages about showing hospitality to strangers (Romans 12:13, Hebrews 13:1, Leviticus 19:34); it can be really hard to reconcile these texts with tribalism and in-group loyalty. Does Jesus break down barriers between us, or does he raise them up?

Authority/Subversion Foundation

The authority/subversion moral foundation suggests that a behavior is wrong to the extent that it is disobedient to authority and right to the extent that it is submissive to authority. For Christians, this moral intuition is perhaps most understood in the mantra, “God said it; I believe it; that settles it.”

Everyone who sins breaks the law; in fact, sin is lawlessness. (1 John 3:4)

“If you love me,” says Jesus, “keep my commands” (John 14:15). “All Scripture is God-breathed,” writes the Apostle Paul, “and is useful for teaching, rebuking, correcting and training in righteousness.” Believing that the Bible is absolutely and exclusively authoritative means that any behavior can be justified as moral as long as we can cite a Biblical reference to back it up. The Bible is the Word of God and God defines what morality is so, as long as we’re following the Bible, we are good to go.

In broader circles of human thought, this kind of thinking is known as “Divine Command Theory,” or the notion that an action is right because it is decreed by some divine authority. On the face of it, this seems perfectly reasonable. However, it can give us pause when we read about things in the Scriptures such as God commanding Abraham to sacrifice Isaac (Genesis 22), the Israelites to commit genocide (1 Samuel 15:3), and rapists to marry their victims as a punishment for the act (Deuteronomy 22:28-29). We can (and often do) rationalize such things away by saying to ourselves, “Well, God knows best. So, if God did or said something, it must have been okay–because God sets the standard for what’s right and wrong.”

When we really think about this, though, it doesn’t really make sense. In his dialogue with Euthyphro, Plato has Socrates ask a very interesting question on this matter.

Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved by the gods?

In other words, “Is any given activity right because God says it is right, or does God say it’s right, because it’s right?” This is an important distinction, because it tells us which comes first. Does morality come from the Bible, or is the Bible built upon a moral foundation that already existed before it was written? Of course, the answer is quite obvious from the Biblical narrative itself. Before there was any kind of written or oral code that we are aware of, God says to Cain in Genesis 4:

If you do what is right, will you not be accepted? But if you do not do what is right, sin is crouching at your door; it desires to have you, but you must rule over it.

Cain doesn’t say to God, “But how will I know what’s right unless you tell me?” Presumably, he already knows intuitively something about what’s right and wrong.

But the idea of morality not existing apart from God also just doesn’t make sense with regard to how we describe God. Christians believe that God is love (1 John 4:8), God is just (Psalm 25:8), and God is truthful (Numbers 23:19). By this, we mean that these are attributes of God. These characteristics exist apart from God and prior to our imposition of them on God. God is love, because God demonstrates behavior we deem as loving. God is just, because God demonstrates behavior we deem to be fair. God is truthful, because we see that God keeps God’s promises. We could not call God loving, just, or truthful unless we had some idea about what these words meant prior to ascribing them to God.

Despite this logical objection, many Christians still cling to the idea that following authority is the ultimate aim of morality. It sounds simple, but there’s always  the matter of interpretation. For example, obedience to God has been used as a justification for everything from slavery to war. If we want to do something badly enough, we can almost always find something in the Bible to support it.

But it’s not just the logical incongruity and the potential for misinterpretation that makes the authority foundation dangerous. It’s also that there are times in the Bible when God appears to reward insubordination. For example, Moses argues God down at one point from entirely wiping out the Israelites–and God listens to him (Exodus 32:9-14). And then there’s that story of Jesus changing his mind about healing a woman’s daughter when she talks back to him (Mark 7:24-30). In her thoughtful reflection on the subject, seminarian Laura Jean Truman writes:

Well, maybe I’ll break my hip in the process of wrestling for justice with my God.

But my Scripture tells me that when we talk back to God, God saves cities, and God heals little girls, and God passes out blessings in the night.

Sanctity/Degradation Foundation

The sanctity/degradation moral foundation suggests that behavior is wrong when it breaks some code of purity or violates some cultural taboo.

Undoubtedly, there is a purity ethic in Christianity—we are to “keep ourselves from being polluted by the world” (James 1:27), try not to “gratify the desires of the flesh” (Romans 13:14, and make an attempt to only even think about “whatever is pure, whatever is lovely, whatever is admirable” (Philippians 4:8). And, of course, much discussion on purity centers around rules regarding sexuality (Hebrews 13:4, 1 Corinthians 6:18, etc.).

Certainly, there is something to be said for creating an environment within the community that is pure, holy, and sacred. If the church is to be the dwelling place of God and God is holy, then the church must be holy as well. So, we have the tendency to frown on things we see as impure: profanity, tattoos, certain kinds of clothing, and deviations from sexual norms. It’s perfectly understandable—even honorable—that we would want to guard the sanctity of God’s house.

There is also a danger, though, to holding so tightly to a purity ethic in the church. Perhaps most significantly, doing so resembles almost precisely the moral motivation of the Pharisees—the great enemies of the Gospel. Time and time again, Jesus rejected ritual purity in favor of treating others with love and decency.

25 “Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You clean the outside of the cup and dish, but inside they are full of greed and self-indulgence. 26 Blind Pharisee! First clean the inside of the cup and dish, and then the outside also will be clean. 27 “Woe to you, teachers of the law and Pharisees, you hypocrites! You are like whitewashed tombs, which look beautiful on the outside but on the inside are full of the bones of the dead and everything unclean.

Not only did Jesus condemn prioritizing ritual purity, he also lived that condemnation. As mentioned earlier, he regularly interacted with the impure of society—the disabled, the leprous, foreigners, and “sinners.” In a fascinating podcast on the subject, psychologist Richard Beck makes an interesting point regarding the fear we often have in the church of being corrupted by the impure. He says it stems from the idea of negativity dominance—that something good can be corrupted but the contaminant cannot be purified. (Think about cockroaches getting into your food. No matter how great the food is, it isn’t going to “purify” the cockroaches enough for you to stomach it). Beck argues that this idea is inconsistent with the Jesus we see in the Gospels. Jesus actually manages to purify the contaminant so that we really have no reason to be afraid of being corrupted.

And, finally, there are also the teachings of Paul that suggest we shouldn’t be held to arbitrary standards of ritual purity. Most of these have to do with eating certain kinds of foods (1 Corinthians 8:8), but some have to do with circumcision (Galatians 2:3-5) and others have to do with celebrating holy days (Colossians 2:16). It’s not too much of a stretch to see how these ideas can be applied to contemporary circumstances of issues regarding moral purity. In his letters, Paul frequently emphasizes the idea of liberty, for “it was for freedom that Christ set us free” (Galatians 5:1).

“For everything God created is good, and nothing is to be rejected if is received with thanksgiving.” – 1 Timothy 4:4

So, Whats’s the Bottom Line?

So, I’ve gone through each of these “moral foundations” and shown how they may be working in complex ways to drive which Scriptures we gravitate to as Christians. Hopefully, this will give you a greater appreciation for the rich diversity that exists within the Christian faith. The Christian ideas of right and wrong are multitudinous. It can come from all kinds of directions. So, hopefully you can see why Southern Baptists may hold such starkly different views from Episcopalians; it’s not necessarily that one is faithful and the other is heretical. Rather, different moral foundations are under-girding their interpretations of Scripture, tradition, history, and culture.

It’s nice to understand something about where our moral motivations come from. But, once we recognize these root drives, there’s still a practical matter. When different moral dispositions collide, we still have to make a choice about which one will take precedence. I don’t think any of these moral foundations is wrong to hold in certain contexts but, as a Christian, is there any one that should take precedence over all the others? As Christians, which foundation should be the bedrock for our moral judgments? To make actual judgments about right and wrong in the real world, we do need some sort of ethical hermeneutic. So, what should it be?

Obviously, I’m revealing my bias on this one. So, you can judge for yourself as to whether or not it makes sense. But, here’s the thing: I’m a follower of Jesus. Before I believe in the integrity of the Bible, before I study Paul, before I hold to the teachings of the church, before all other tests of religious identity, I consider myself a follower of Jesus. So, when I ask myself, what is the bottom line for me when it comes to judging whether or not something is right or wrong, I can’t help but look to the life of Jesus.

So, let’s look to the Gospel narratives and ask a simple question: “what kind of moral foundation did Jesus have?” Well, just like us, it appears to be all over the place. He encouraged us to love our neighbors, approved of reparations, privileged the Jew over the gentile, submitted to God’s authority, and retreated by himself to pray. But, in the end, the question we’re really interested in is: “what kind of moral foundation did Jesus place above all the others?” What was Jesus’s bottom line? When different moral dispositions came into conflict, which one took precedence for Jesus?

Interestingly, we have this scenario take place on multiple occasions in the Gospels–and it always has to do with the same thing: Jesus healing on the Sabbath. Jesus encounters someone on the Sabbath who is in need of healing, and the question is raised regarding whether or not he will do it–since it would mean violating the moral norm of his religious contemporaries. To provide some context regarding the moral framework in which people were operating, it’s important to read the following passage from Numbers 15:32-36:

32 Now while the children of Israel were in the wilderness, they found a man gathering sticks on the Sabbath day. 33 And those who found him gathering sticks brought him to Moses and Aaron, and to all the congregation. 34 They put him under guard, because it had not been explained what should be done to him.

35 Then the Lord said to Moses, “The man must surely be put to death; all the congregation shall stone him with stones outside the camp.” 36 So, as the Lord commanded Moses, all the congregation brought him outside the camp and stoned him with stones, and he died.

We can see a number of the moral foundations present in this text. Most obvious is the “authority/subversion” foundation–picking up sticks on the Sabbath is a crime punishable by death because God says it is. But, given the fundamental conviction that the Sabbath is holy, picking up sticks on the Sabbath is also in violation of the “sanctity/degradation” foundation. Weaker arguments can be made for the loyalty/betrayal foundation (the Sabbath is a community-specific ritual) and the fairness/cheating foundation (getting ahead of others by working on the Sabbath), but it’s really difficult to make an argument that the “care/harm” foundation is being violated here. Clearly, the people weren’t harmed by this man, because they express confusion about what should be done with him.

So, back to Jesus. Judging by the text from Numbers, the Pharisees are completely justified in expecting Jesus to cease his ministry on the Sabbath. When confronted with the dilemma of honoring the Sabbath but leaving people in their suffering or breaking the Sabbath but making people well, what did Jesus do? Let’s read–first from the story in Luke 13:10-13:

10 On a Sabbath Jesus was teaching in one of the synagogues, 11 and a woman was there who had been crippled by a spirit for eighteen years. She was bent over and could not straighten up at all. 12 When Jesus saw her, he called her forward and said to her, “Woman, you are set free from your infirmity.” 13 Then he put his hands on her, and immediately she straightened up and praised God.

14 Indignant because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, the synagogue leader said to the people, “There are six days for work. So come and be healed on those days, not on the Sabbath.”

15 The Lord answered him, “You hypocrites! Doesn’t each of you on the Sabbath untie your ox or donkey from the stall and lead it out to give it water? 16 Then should not this woman, a daughter of Abraham, whom Satan has kept bound for eighteen long years, be set free on the Sabbath day from what bound her?”

Jesus clearly places the well-being of the woman he heals over the constraints of the Sabbath law. He even calls out the hypocrisy of those who question him. They wouldn’t have an issue getting their oxen and donkeys something to drink on the Sabbath, but they’re going to complain about one of their own women being healed from decades of suffering? “Doesn’t she deserve to be made well?” Asks Jesus, “Doesn’t she deserve to be set free?”

A similar story occurs in Mark 3:1-6 (with parallel passages in Matthew 12:1-14 and Luke 6:1-11, as well as two additional stories in John 5 and John 9):

Another time Jesus went into the synagogue, and a man with a shriveled hand was there. 2 Some of them were looking for a reason to accuse Jesus, so they watched him closely to see if he would heal him on the Sabbath. 3 Jesus said to the man with the shriveled hand, “Stand up in front of everyone.”

4 Then Jesus asked them, “Which is lawful on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?” But they remained silent.

5 He looked around at them in anger and, deeply distressed at their stubborn hearts, said to the man, “Stretch out your hand.”He stretched it out, and his hand was completely restored. 6 Then the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus.

I want to call out just two things about this passage. First, Jesus makes a very explicit statement about, when it comes down to it, what is really right and wrong:

Which is lawful on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?

To do good, Jesus says, is to save life. To do evil is to kill. In this proclamation, Jesus is very overtly arguing for the “care/harm” foundation above all others.

Secondly, it’s important to know the consequences that ensue from Jesus making this statement. The passage ends by saying, “Then the Pharisees went out and began to plot with the Herodians how they might kill Jesus.” In other words, this act of defiantly placing the importance of caring for people over the importance of anything else sets into motion a chain of events that will eventually land him on the cross. Let this sink in for a moment:

Jesus was executed because he placed the law of love above the love of law.

Can you grasp the gravity of this statement? Arguing for the preferential treatment of the “care/harm” foundation was worth Jesus giving up his own life. In a very concrete sense, Jesus died for the sake of love.

So, at the end of the day, I side with Jesus in in my preference for the “care/harm” foundation of morality. That doesn’t mean I don’t believe in people being treated fairly, being loyal to those close to me, obeying authority when appropriate, and showing respect for the sacred. But, if ever any of these should come into conflict with upholding the dignity of my fellow human beings, I have a moral imperative to err on the side of love.

My hermeneutic of ethics is found in Galatians 5:14, which bears repeating:

For the entire law is fulfilled in keeping this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.”

You may come to a different conclusion on where to draw the line on moral issues but, for me, this is it. Everything is funneled through this.

If it’s not love, then it’s not right.


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“I affirm a Biblical view of everything,” but not in the way you think…

I love the Bible.

I never tire of excavating the scriptures for new theological insights, provocative challenges for more ethical behavior, and soul-nourishing inspiration for grappling with the human condition. The sacred texts are beautiful. Although I read the same passages over and over again, I am continually amazed by how simultaneously heart-wrenching and thought-provoking they can be.

It’s worth repeating: I love the Bible.

While I now have no trouble admitting my affinity for the Bible, I wasn’t so sure about it just a few years ago. At the time, I was undergoing a crisis of faith. It was a culmination of many things. I had recently developed a more open-minded posture in my professional and personal life. When I tried to apply this to my spiritual life, things got tricky. First, I questioned my theology–beginning my journey with John Macquarrie’s Principles of Christian Theology. Then, I questioned my church–reading a history of the denomination that transformed my view of it. Finally, I listened to a lecture series on the development of the Christian Bible…and that’s where things really got interesting.

This lecture series completely decimated my faith in the Bible as the “Word of God,” and it took me a while to reconstruct my understanding of the scriptures into something meaningful again. As I went through Luke Timothy Johnson’s Great Courses series, The Story of the Bible, and did some corresponding research and fact-checking, I learned that before becoming the “Word of God” as I was raised to understand it, the Bible had to be:

  • Written. I was raised to believe that the Bible was “revealed” to its writers in a straightforward manner and written down verbatim according to the utterances of the Holy Spirit. It turns out, that’s not how it happened. It was actually written over centuries by a bunch of different people in a bunch of different places. And there are internal inconsistencies (alternate Creation/Noah’s ark stories, the Synoptic Gospels, etc.) precisely for this reason. Although some of the Bible writers claim some sort of divine inspiration, others simply write the text without comment on the justification. Still others are blatant expressions of human feelings (perhaps divinely “inspired” but likely not divinely dictated) in the form of poems, prayers, and songs (Psalms). Two books (Esther and Songs of Solomon) say nothing of God whatsoever. The author of Luke (who also writes the Acts of the Apostles) explicitly says that he’s writing his Gospel, not because the Holy Spirit told him to, but rather because he’s seen many others do it and just thought he’d give it a go. Paul admits that some of his thoughts are from God while others are his own opinions (1 Corinthians 7:10-12). One Bible writer criticizes the writing style of another Bible writer (2 Peter 3:16). I could go on and on, but the point is this: in whatever way the writings of the Bible are “inspired by God,” they are much more human compositions than I was raised to believe.
  • Canonized. This revelation was perhaps the most jarring: that the Bible (66 books; 39 OT and 27 NT) I was raised to accept as the complete and final authority of God was not agreed upon as such until 397 AD. That’s over 350 years following the death of Jesus–more than a century longer than the United States has been a nation. That means that the first several generations of the early church did not have a Bible. What they did have was miscellaneous letters, books, and collections of letters of books–some which are in our Bible today and some which are not. The first proposal for a fixed canon of books wasn’t even suggested until the end of the second century–150 years after the death of Jesus. The debate over which books should and shouldn’t be included proceeded in a haphazard fashion across nearly two centuries. Some of the writings of early church fathers even reference scriptures that didn’t make the cut. Even today, different texts are used in the Protestant, Catholic, and Eastern churches. What all this tells me is that, as beneficial as the scriptures are to the church, there is something more fundamental to its existence. The story of Jesus and the experience of the Holy Spirit in the community preceded the existence of a codified document spelling out the right doctrines and practices for Christians.
  • Copied. Here’s another shocking revelation: we don’t have the original Bible. All the manuscripts we have of every text are copies (or, more frequently, copies of copies). Not only that, but no two manuscripts of the same text are precisely identical. As you would expect from ancient people hand-copying lengthy texts onto parchment, there are countless errors. Some have words missing. Others have words added. Still others leave out entire passages. Most striking, perhaps, is that the earliest manuscripts do not contain the end of the Gospel of Mark (Mark 16:9-20), the story of the Woman caught in adultery (John 8:1-11), or the explicit statement on the Trinity (1 John 5:7). These were later additions that were used by the church for over a thousand years before people realized it. This begs the question: which passages are “inspired?” Which words did God want left out? Which words did God want added? Chances are, the Bible you’re reading today has a vast array of footnotes informing you of the textual variants in different manuscripts. If the Bible was to be God’s direct and infallible revelation to mankind, why do these variants exist?
  • Translated. The Christian Bible was originally written in Greek. In Western Christianity, it was then translated into Latin–a version used by most of Christendom for nearly a thousand years. Then, it was translated into German, English, and so on. Of course, the problem is that words lose some of their original meaning when they’re translated. Some words are overly simplified in the new language (like “love”); others don’t easily translate, because the concept doesn’t quite exist in the language they’re translated into (like “Apostle”). There are many translation issues that have caused a stir in the history of the Bible. Perhaps the most egregious is the word translated as “virgin” in the Septuagint (Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible used by the writers of the New Testament). In the original Hebrew, the term simply meant “young woman.” Ordinarily, this would not have been a big deal–except that it came to be believed that the Messiah would have to be born of a virgin, as opposed to simply a young woman. Of course, this doesn’t mean that Jesus wasn’t born of a virgin. But, scripturally speaking, it means that he actually didn’t have to be.
  • Read. The problem with believing that the Bible is to be a literal, word-for-word judge for an individual’s proper belief and conduct is that, for most of Christian history, the vast majority of Christians did not have access to the Bible. Today, there is approximately one printed Bible (based only on those printed in a single year, plus there’s digital Bibles, smartphone apps, and the Internet) for every 200 people. At the time of the printing press, however, there was approximately one Bible for every 20,000 people. (Note: my math may be sketchy on this. I basically divided the population at the time by the number of extant manuscripts; but, it’s close enough). And, if a community was even lucky enough to have a Bible, few could read it. Expecting people to be personally responsible for properly understanding and following the text presupposes the privileges of access and literacy. Most Christians throughout history have had neither.
  • Interpreted. After everything, the Bible still must be interpreted. If you grew up understanding the Bible in a fixed, inflexible way–that’s just because someone else did the hard work of interpreting for you, and you simply accepted it. How much of Revelation is literal and how much is figurative? Was the world really made in six 24-hour days? Does the sun revolve around the earth? How important is speaking in tongues? Are we saved by faith, works, or both? Is God okay with slavery? What about genocide? What happens to us when we die? What is the meaning of baptism? Should we “allow” women in ministry? Is “homosexuality” a sin? Is God in control of everything and, if so, how can we still have free will? Different people have answered these questions in different ways at different times. That’s why there have been so many movements, denominations, and sects within the church throughout history. At the end of the day, everyone brings to bear on the text their own personal and cultural biases. We’re all interpreters.

After you’ve investigated all this yourself, you may go through a period of doubt and deconstruction just like I did. When you face the reality of how the Bible came to be, it’s kind of hard to avoid. If God is not a God of confusion (1 Corinthians 14:33), then it seems pretty clear to me that the Bible cannot be God’s exclusive means of communication.

My “Biblical View of Everything”

“Now, wait a second,” you say, “I thought this was going to be an article in support of the Bible!” Well, actually, I think that it is. Let me explain…

Just last week, celebrated Christian pastor and Bible translator Eugene Peterson revealed to a reporter that his views had evolved on the subject of same-sex relationships–affirming the sanctity of same-sex marriage. Just a day later, however, he recanted the affirmation–making the following statement.

To clarify, I affirm a biblical view of marriage: one man to one woman. I affirm a biblical view of everything.

My initial response, as was that of many others, was, “What does ‘a Biblical view of everything’ even mean?” Let’s just, for the moment, consider the hard-line stance of a ‘Biblical view of marriage.’ Which Biblical view of marriage was he referring to?

  • The one that allows men to have multiple wives? (Exodus 21:10)
  • The one that commands the rapist to marry his victim? (Deuteronomy 22:28-29)
  • The one that suggests marriage is just a temporary arrangement and that we are all ultimately bound to be asexual? (Matthew 22:23-33)
  • The one that condemns those who forbid marriage? (1 Timothy 4:3)
  • The one that affirms those who have a natural, same-sex orientation as people created in the image of God (Genesis 1:27) and fearfully and wonderfully made (Psalm 139:14)?

I affirm the Biblical view of marriage too, just a different one than Peterson does. Some might find it scandalous to suggest that the Bible holds contradictory perspectives on any given issue. But when you really look at it, it’s hard to get around this reality. Some examples?

  • Jesus said both “whoever is not with me is against me” (Matthew 12:30) and “whoever is not against us is for us” (Mark 9:40).
  • Jesus said both that he did not come to bring peace, but a sword (Matthew 10:34) and that he who lives by the sword will die by the sword (Matthew 26:52).
  • The Bible says that God does not change his mind (Numbers 23:19), but Moses changes God’s mind about destroying the Israelites (Numbers 14), God “regrets” making mankind and decides to destroy it with a flood (Genesis 6), and a woman changes Jesus’s mind about healing her daughter (Matthew 15:21-28).
  • Paul says that Jesus existed in the form of God and merely took on the form of a servant (Philippians 2:5-8), while Peter says that Jesus was a human being “made Lord and Christ” by God (Acts 2:36).
  • Slaves are encouraged to obey their masters (Colossians 3:22), but the dichotomy between master and slave is also supposed to be abolished (Galatians 3:28).

There are countless other examples of “contradictions,” (I prefer the term “variations”) and these probably aren’t even the best ones. The point I’m trying to make is this: that we all have a certain hermeneutic when we read the Bible; we all have a lens through which we funnel texts so that we can alleviate the discomfort of our cognitive dissonance. No one takes the Bible “as is,” or uses a “plain reading.” There is no such thing.

So, what we do is this: we pick out the scripture that aligns with our worldview and then reconcile the other scriptures to it. Of course, this is a simplistic observation. Sometimes, the scriptures do actually change us and we come to see things in a new light. More often than not, though, we already have our minds made up–and we go to the scriptures to simply reinforce what we already believe.

  • If we want to exclude people from the community, we’ll say that Jesus meant the thing about “whoever is not for me is against me,” while the other saying must have been specific to the context.
  • If we’re pacifists, we say that Jesus meant the thing about not living by the sword, but the idea that he did not come to bring peace must be some kind of metaphor.
  • If we want to believe that God does not change, then we’ll say that God didn’t really change his mind; that’s just how it appeared.
  • If we want to believe in a more human Jesus, we’ll argue that the Philippian passage is referring to the Spirit of God being emptied into the human Jesus.
  • If we want to justify exploiting an entire race of people and using their slave labor to build our country and fatten our wallets, we’ll say that the freedom in Galatians refers to “salvation” but not to temporal reality on this earth.

I’m not saying that I don’t do this. Of course I do. Everyone does. The Bible is a complicated book and, if you’re looking to it for moral guidance, you’ve got to decide what kind of direction you want to be headed in. Personally, I have an ethical hermeneutic (how I use the Bible to help me adjudicate right from wrong) based on Galatians 5:14, which says, “For the entire law is fulfilled in keeping this one command: “Love your neighbor as yourself.

I funnel everything through love. If following a principle is inconsistent with love, then I must be reading it wrong. It’s all about how I treat people. Of course, there are moral ideas that are not inherently relational–prayer, worship, aesthetic purity, sacred spaces, spiritual rituals, etc. As a follower of Jesus, however, I think the relational should always take precedence over the ritualistic. This, I believe is what Jesus was saying when he broke the Sabbath in order to heal a crippled man (Mark 3:4):

“Which is lawful on the Sabbath: to do good or to do evil, to save life or to kill?”

The Magic of Messy

When I say that I affirm a “Biblical view of everything,” what I mean is that I affirm a complex, nuanced, diverse, dialectical, and radically human view of everything. Because the Bible, like life on this giant spinning rock, is complicated.

There are no easy answers. There is paradox and uncertainty. There is violence and cruelty. There is sin and frailty and failure. There is death and destruction and evil and hell.

But there is also faith, hope, and love. There is grace and mercy and compassion and empathy. There is inspiration and community and redemption and restoration. There is life and reconstruction and goodness and heaven.

Just like life, the Bible is messy–but that’s exactly what gives it its magic. I love the Bible, not in spite of its complexity, but because of it. The Bible is a microcosm of the human experience. That’s why I love the Bible. Not because it’s simplistic and straightforward and easily manageable. I love the Bible, because it cannot be contained–because it’s bigger and deeper and wider than any of us could ever imagine. In that sense, yes, I believe the Bible is absolutely inspired by God.

I’ll say this, though: if you’re looking for a rule book, you probably want to avoid the Bible. It will just confuse you. Instead, you should just ask your church or pastor what you should believe and/or do. You can go to the scriptures that are pointed out to you, and interpret them in the way you are told to read them. And, if you don’t think too hard or ask too many questions, you’ll be satisfied. If that’s what you’re into, go for it.

But that’s not the Bible. If you read the Bible, you won’t be getting a simple explanation for what to believe or a clear direction for what to do. The Bible will not serve as a surrogate for your critical thinking or your moral agency. If you approach the Bible for what it is, it will challenge you. It will confuse you. It will take you all over the place and back again. Because, despite what you may have been told, when you read the Bible, you are not reading a single story; you are reading an anthology.

And it may just be the greatest anthology ever compiled.

(Image licensed via Creative Commons)

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Does Intermittent Fasting Really Help You Eat Less?

I’ve been practicing intermittent fasting since September 2015. At first, I experimented with a few different methods, but I quickly landed on the 16/8 method–which means that I fasted everyday for 16 hours and left myself an 8 hour window in which to eat. In reality, I often stretched my window to 10 hours for a late night snack but–with the rare exception for a special occasion–I completely stopped eating breakfast. I simply waited until lunchtime (between 11am and 1pm) to start eating everyday.

Prior to starting intermittent fasting, I had completed a “Biggest Loser” challenge at work in which I dropped 40 pounds. I did it pretty much by calorie restriction–eating only 1000 to 1500 calories per day for a few months. I decided to try my hand at fasting in order to maintain weight. Over time, it has worked. I gained back maybe 5-10 pounds and then plateaued at a solid 155.

Well, you know me. After a few years on the same old boring eating regiment, I had to try another experiment…

Although the research is still developing, fasting has proven to be an extremely helpful exercise for many in losing weight–despite the misconceptions some people have. Nevertheless, there has been some research indicating that certain methods of fasting don’t really work, because people simply overcompensate by eating more during the periods when they aren’t fasting. Anecdotally, it is for this reason that some have observed Muslims actually gaining weight during the month of Ramadan.

The Fasting Project

So, which is it? Does fasting actually help you eat less or does the increased calorie intake during non-fasting periods cancel out the amount you don’t eat while you’re fasting?

Well, science to the rescue! Or, at least a science-y like personal data project. Obviously, I can’t generalize this to anyone else but, at least for me, I think I’ve found an answer to the question. To determine whether fasting actually works, I alternated fasting each day at three different intervals for a period of 6 weeks:

  • 14 days fasting 19 hours a day and only eating within a 5 hour window (skipped breakfast and lunch)
  • 14 days fasting 14 hours a day and only eating within a 10 hour window (skipped breakfast but ate lunch and dinner)
  • 14 days fasting 9 hours a day and only eating within a 15 hour window (didn’t fast at all–except when I was sleeping; ate breakfast, lunch, dinner, and any other time during the day that I felt like it)

To cancel out any effects of variation in eating based on the day of the week (maybe I would eat more on weekends?), I was sure to fast twice on each day of the week for each fasting method.

Also, I know there tends to be a bias in calorie counting. People tend to eat less when they’re paying attention to how much they’re eating. As they see the calories add up, we either explicitly or subconsciously start to refuse more food. To mitigate this effect, I did not count up my calories until the end of each day; I just kept track of all the food I ate in my notepad app and waited until the day ended to see how many calories it added up to.

The Results

Above, you can see a table showing a statistical summary of the project’s results. All in all, I consumed an average of 1300 calories on days when I skipped breakfast and lunch, 2000 calories on days when I skipped only breakfast, and a whopping 3000 calories on days when I did not fast at all. Interestingly, the average per hour calorie intake only increased when I skipped both breakfast and lunch. Just a guess, but I’m betting that’s because my body was already used to skipping breakfast and so I only felt compelled to eat more when I skipped lunch as well.

One thing I wanted to make sure of was that there wasn’t a huge difference in how much I consumed based on the day of the week in which I was eating. Looking at the bar graph above, nothing in particular jumps out. I ate the least on Saturday when I wasn’t fasting at all (15 hour window), on Wednesday when I skipped breakfast (10 hour window), and by a small margin on Thursday when I skipped both breakfast and lunch (5 hour window).

In the bar graph, you can also see the averages for each window pretty clearly–and there does seem to be a consistent difference. Above, you can see a scatter plot of my daily calorie intake as well. The different colored points and lines represent the daily intake and moving average trend, respectively, for each method. Just by looking at the scatter plot, it seems pretty clear that there are significant differences between the three fasting windows.

When looking at differences like this, though, you can’t just look at the averages; you have to look at the entire distributions. In each method of the summary table, you can see that the maximum of the method with the smaller window slightly exceeds the minimum of the method with the next larger window. So, the real question isn’t whether the averages are different but, rather, whether the entire distributions are different. That’s what a histogram is for. When you look at the distributions above, it seems fairly obvious that there are significant differences between each method.

To be sure, though, you’ve got to perform a statistical test. Above is the R output for an analysis of variance on the data set. Without going into an explanation of what the results mean, suffice it to say that there is indeed a difference between the three methods. But, how much of a difference is there between each method? There’s another statistical test for that, Tukey’s honest significant difference

In this table, the “p_adj” shows that the relationship between each fasting method does have a statistically significant difference. The “difference” column shows how many more calories are consumed using the fasting method to the left side of the hyphen in the “methods” column vs the fasting method on the right side of the hyphen. For example, I on average consume 1,749 fewer calories on days when I skip breakfast and lunch than on days when I eat all day (don’t fast at all).

Another way to look at the distributions for each method is by using a box plot. The boxes represent the interquartile range (where 25-75% of the data fall) for each method. The line going through the middle of the box is the average. The lines extending from the boxes represent the extreme ends of the data–with the points being the outliers. This visual clearly shows the differences between the methods. But it also shows this: the larger the window I give myself, the more varied my calorie intake is.

During my project, I didn’t only track calories; I also tracked 5 other key nutrients. I’m not going to bother with doing the statistical tests but, just looking at the box plots, there seem to be significant differences in at least some of the methods for every nutrient. And, as for the carbs and the fat, the trend seems to be identical to that of the calories–with there being a clear difference between each method.

The real question about this project was whether or not I overeat on days that I’m not fasting to overcompensate for the days that I am. To test this, I looked at the “calories per hour” and compared them across the different methods. In this case, there only seems to be a difference on the days that I skip both breakfast and lunch. When I just skip breakfast (versus not fasting at all), I tend to consume the same amount of calories per hour and only eat less because I have a shorter window. When I skip breakfast and lunch, though, I consume about 50 more calories per hour. It’s still not enough to overcompensate for the amount I eat when I’m not fasting, but there is a difference.

You can see this difference more clearly in the box plot. When you look at my calories per hour, there is virtually no difference whatsoever in eating all day versus skipping breakfast. I don’t eat any more to compensate for missing breakfast. However, when I skip both breakfast and lunch, I eat significantly more calories to compensate for not eating all day.

That being said, the additional 50 calories per hour doesn’t really matter when I’m only eating within a 5 hour window. Take a look at the comparison of the box plots above. Eating the extra 50 calories per hour with the narrowest window adds up to eating about 1,250 calories versus 2,000 on days when I skip only breakfast and 3,000 calories on days when I don’t fast at all.

So, after all of that, the answer for me at least is a resounding: YES! Fasting works. And so, after 6 weeks of data collection and analysis, here’s my conclusion: I’m pretty much going to keep doing what I’m doing…

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20 Theology Podcasts for Christians Who Want to Broaden Their Faith

I’ve been really into theology podcasts lately. It seems like I’m adding a new podcast to my list every week. I follow many of the podcasters and interviewees on Twitter and, through them, keep stumbling across new shows that provide engaging discussions on faith and culture. I’ve actually gone on the web to look for lists, but I’ve come up short. So, although my list is still a work in progress, I figured I’d post one here. Who knows? Maybe some will find it useful…

A few of these are not necessarily “Christian,” but I think all of them are important for Christians to hear. Many of these shows contain conversations that the typical straight, white, American Christian is not accustomed to hearing. If that’s you, then I would especially encourage you to listen. We grow most fully when we are willing to expose ourselves to more diverse perspectives.

Because many of these defy categorization, I figured I would just list them in the order that I’ve discovered them. I’ll try to provide some basic details regarding the format, length, etc. of each–as well as some of favorite episodes. If you’re an avid podcast listener and think there is something missing from the list, please let me know. I’d be happy to add it. Okay, here goes…

Research on Religion

A podcast by a political science Professor Tony Gill discussing religion from a social science perspective. Gill interviews a range range of guests including historians, scientists, Bible scholars, and more.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Nancy Ellen Abrams on Spirituality and Science

Twitter: @RoRCast

On Being with Krista Tippett

A podcast hosted by journalist and broadcaster Krista Tippett. In each episode, she interviews a wide variety of people from the sciences and humanities about the religious experiences and the role those experience have played in shaping them and their work.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 hour (1.5 hour extended version)

Favorite Episode(s): Finding God in All Things with James MartinRandomness and Choice with Leonard Mlodinow, Choosing Curiosity Over Fear with Elizabeth Gilbert, Who We Want to Become with Michelle Alexander

Twitter: @KristaTippet, @OnBeing

The Robcast

The podcast of former pastor and Christian motivational speaker Rob Bell. Occasionally, he interviews someone and they dialogue about a certain issue. Most often, though, the podcasts consists of unscripted monologues of Rob discussing a particular cultural issue or insight from scripture and/or theology.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: varies. Typically 30 minutes to 1.5 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Pete Rollins on God Part 2, Wisdom Part 4: Life and Death and Vegetables, Wisdom Part 7: The Simple and the Subtle

Twitter: @RealRobBell

Homebrewed Christianity

A podcast hosted by PhD Theology candidate Tripp Fuller. The typical podcast features interviews from popular authors in progressive Christianity and some of the most notable theologians in academia. He uses the phrase “theology nerd” a lot.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Elizabeth Johnson on Infinite Mystery and the Diverse Doxology of God, The Bishop of Humanism – Bart Campolo, Sally McFague on Loving God and the World

Twitter: @HomeBrewedXnty, @TrippFuller

The Liturgists Podcast

A podcast discussing issues in progressive Christianity as well as in the post-Christian world. Most episodes feature interviews with guests from a variety of background discussing their nuanced views on faith.

Frequency: Every three weeks

Typical Length: 1.5 – 2 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Ableism with Ginny Owens, Spiritual Trauma, Christian Violence with Shane Claiborne

Twitter: @TheLiturgists

The Deconstructionists Podcast

A podcast hosted by John Williamson and Adam Narloch about wrestling with the Christian faith. The hosts interview a wide range of thinkers, activists, and theologians–most of whom are struggling to make sense of a faith that has been going through a process of deconstruction,

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 – 1.5 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Dr. Pete Enns; The Sin of Certainty, Sumbul Ali-Karamali; The Muslim Next Door, Diana Butler Bass; Grounded, Rob Bell; What is the Bible?

Twitter: @john_willi10, @adamnarloch, @deconstructcast

The Bible for Normal People

A podcast hosted by Bible Professor Pete Enns and former Philosophy Professor Jared Byas, interviewing Bible scholars and sometimes just talking among themselves about passages and themes in scripture.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 45 minutes  to 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Walter Brueggemann: Resurrecting the Bible in the Mainline Church, Amy Levine: Jesus, Judaism, and Christianity, Daniel Kirk: Understanding the Human Jesus

Twitter: @PeteEnns, @JByas

Two Feminists Annotate the Bible

A podcast hosted by Jordan, a female Episcopal priest, and Luci, a high school religion teacher. Jordan and Luci are going through the entire Bible, reviewing the key passages and discussing the themes from a feminist perspective.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 45 minutes

Favorite Episode(s): 1 Samuel 21-25 (David and Jonathan), 2 Samuel 11-12 (David and Bathsheba), Note: I still need to go back and listen to the earlier episodes; I’ve only been on since 1 Samuel…

Twitter: @TwoFeminists, @GodWelcomesAll

Theology Live

A podcast hosted by Episcopal priest (who is also queer and African-American) Broderick Greer discussing theological issues relevant to the church and culture of today, specifically (though not always) pertaining to race and sexuality.

Frequency: Sporadic; weekly to semi-monthly

Typical Length: 30-45 minutes

Favorite Episode(s): #WhiteChurchQuiet with Reverend Andre Johnson

Twitter: @901Theology, @BroderickGreer

Lord Have Mercy

A podcast hosted by social justice activist and queer woman of color Crystal Cheatham. Crystal invites on people from a variety of perspectives to discuss their work in social justice, with a specific emphasis on the intersection of faith and LGBTQ issues.

Frequency: Sporadic

Typical Length: 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Brandan Robertson and the Big Moody Bible Try and Fail, Yaz Nunez Remembers Pulse, Sexual Shame with Ryan Johnstone

Twitter: @CrystalCheatham

A Tiny Revolution with Kevin Garcia

A podcast hosted by gay Christian Kevin Garcia. Kevin interviews a broad range of people doing work in queer theology. In sharing parts of his personal story, he also discusses how LGBTQ people can thrive in a life of faith despite cultural roadblocks in the Christian church.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Sin and Setting Shit on Fire with Austin Hartke, Activist Theology with Dr. Robyn, Emmy Kegler is Trying to Convert Me

Twitter: @TheKevinGarcia_

Ezer Uncaged

A podcast hosted by Lauren Larkin and Sarah Taras discussing the traditional roles of women in the church and how those expectations are changing as women break free from those expectations to reclaim Christianity on their own terms. Also, the show has the greatest tagline ever: “We are the woman that Pastors warned you about.”

Frequency: Sporadic

Typical Length: 1 to 1.5 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Unscripted and Uncaged: An Interview with Nate Sparks, The Confidence Gap, Female Sexuality and the Gospel

Twitter: @EzerUncaged, @LaurenRELarkin, @SarahTaras

The Thinking Atheist

A podcast by former Evangelical Christian and current freethinker activist Seth Andrews. Seth interviews other freethinker activist and also shares stories from ordinary people who have defected from religion. This podcast is often highly critical and even downright insulting of Christianity. It’s not a Christian podcast, but it’s a podcast Christians need to hear.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 30 minutes to 1.5 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Christianity Made Me Talk Like an Idiot, Letter to a Christian Spouse

Twitter: @ThinkingAtheist, @SethAndrewsTTA


A podcast hosted by gay Christian Matthias Roberts, in which the author interviews people from a variety of fields on various topics related to faith and queer sexuality.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 45 minutes to 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): Jennifer Knapp, Robyn Henderson-Espinoza, Abi Robins

Twitter: @QueerologyPod, @MatthiasRoberts


A podcast hosted by Blake Chastain, interviewing a range of people from progressive Christian circles, theologians, authors, and people who have left fundamentalist Christianity to seek broader spiritual fulfillment.

Frequency: Every one to three weeks

Typical Length: 1.5 – 2 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Interview with Samantha Field

Twitter: @ExvangelicalPod, @BRChastain

Holy Heretics

A podcast by two former Evangelical pastors (Scott and Jon), discussing provocative themes in Christianity and inviting guests on from theological and broader religious circles. The hosts take a progressive Christian perspective, rejecting fundamentalism but still claiming a nuanced version of faith.

Frequency: Every week

Typical Length: 1 hour

Favorite Episode(s): The Mosque Across the Street, Heretical Questions

Twitter: @HolyHeretics

Nomad Podcast

A podcast hosted by two guys navigating spiritual complexity in an increasingly secular world. Basically, this is the British version of many podcasts on this list (or, given that they’re well above 100 episodes, the other podcasts are the American versions of this one). The authors interview people from all sorts of circles on the ways in which they’re sticking with and/or moving away from faith.

Frequency: Every one to three weeks

Typical Length: 1.5 to 2 hours

Favorite Episode(s): Brian Zahnd: How to Deconstruct without Leaving Church,

Twitter: @NomadPodcast

Faith and Race Podcast

A podcast hosted by the United Methodist Church inviting Christians of color (first season) as well as other non-white Christians (second season) on to discuss the work they’re doing to bridge the racial divide in the American church.

Frequency: Every week (seasonal)

Typical Length: 30 minutes

Favorite Episode(s): Season 2 Episode 3: Kenneth Pruitt, Season 2 Episode 6: Karen Yang, Season 1 Episode 3: Dr. Leah Gunning Francis on Ferguson

Two Priests in a Pod

A podcast by Episcopal priests Geoff and Jimmy. A few episodes contain interviews with other other Christian thinkers and pastors, but most shows feature a dialogue between Geoff and Jimmy on a variety of theological and practical Christian issues.

Frequency: Weekly

Typical Length: 30 minutes

Favorite Episode(s): Rev. Jordan Ware (from Two Feminists Annotate the Bible)

Twitter: @PriestsInAPod

Faithfully Podcast

A podcast by Nicola Menzie–editor of Faithfully Magazine, a publication serving Christian communities of color. For each episode, she invites guests on to discuss issues at the intersection of race, culture, and faith.

Frequency: Monthly to semi-monthly

Typical Length: 30 minutes

Favorite Episode(s): How the CCM and Gospel Industries Can Fail Christian Rappers, Kathy Khang on Christians and Racial Reconciliation

Twitter: @FaithfullyMag, @NAMenzie


Blog Image courtesy of Redeeming God.

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What’s So Wrong with “Help Me Understand?”: Why Marginalized People Don’t Want Our Questions About How We Can Do Better

This is a post for the (typically straight white, gender-conforming male) “well meaning liberals” like me. I’ve been on this journey for a few years now, trying to come to terms with the many privileges afforded to me due to my cultural identity. I’ve been making an active effort to listen to and learn from the voices that have been largely ignored by the dominant demographics to which I belong. However noble my intentions, though, I’ve often made some blunders in trying to broaden my worldview. I want to discuss one of those here, because I feel like it’s a common occurrence among people who are trying to do what I’m doing…

I recently noticed an interchange on Twitter that prompted me to write about this topic. A progressive Christian pastor made a comment about the subject of  “intersectionality” being “new” and untested, which prompted a response from someone suggesting that the term is actually a few decades old and that he might not have taken it seriously simply because it was propagated by a woman of color. This pastor then proceeded to answer the claim with the following:

Mo, I’d love to learn from you. Please DM me any resources you have. I’m drawing on what sociologists have said. Please forgive my ignorance

When I read his response, I thought to myself, “Wow, what grace and humility!” Indeed, I’ve approached people in a similar fashion–thinking that putting myself in the position of a helpless student would aid me in generating dialogue and deepening my understanding. Sometimes, it has worked. Other times, I’ve simply been ignored. And this has often puzzled me. After all, I’m humbly reaching out and debasing myself to learn from you; the least you can do is provide me some resources! But, at any rate, I figured this was the best response the pastor could possibly give on this particular issue. Then, I scrolled down to see what resources had been provided. Here are a few of the responses:

Really, there are so many search engines to work with out there. Just type that word in and read.

Why should he do it when there are WOC he can expect to do the legwork for him? He “wants to learn”, but doesn’t want to do it himself. -_-

Preston, seriously? Are you completely unable to Google? Why would you expect any of these fine women to do your due diligence for you?


“Give the guy a break, “I thought to myself as I read these remarks, “he’s trying!” 

Out of curiosity, I decided to Google “intersectionality” to see what I could find. It turns out they were right; there is no shortage of material. One of the first things that popped up was a recent presentation on the subject from Kimberle Crenshaw, the woman who coined the term. I listened to the talk, and now I have a bit of a better idea about what “intersectionality” is. And, no, I didn’t have to ask a woman of color to explain herself in order to find out.

But what’s the big deal with asking, “How can I help?” Why does it bother people from marginalized communities so much when straight, white, gender-conforming males ask them for direction? Obviously, I’m still new at this, but I think I’m beginning to get an inkling…

  • First, it’s because they’re exhausted. Many of them have been fighting for a long time for their rights to simply be who they are, and they’re just tired of getting asked the same old questions. These are questions they shouldn’t have to be answering in the first place, and yet they get those same questions over and over again. They’re just tired of playing the game.
  • Second, it’s because they don’t owe us explanations. When we ask them to teach us, I feel like they see it as an ultimatum: “Okay, I’ll try to see it from your perspective. But first you have to convince me that it makes sense.” No, they don’t. They don’t have to articulate themselves in a way that meets our demands. We are not a standard that they need to meet.
  • Finally, I feel like the whole “help me understand” thing is often seen as us trying to be heroes. We’re trying to show that we’re good, progressive people–that we have the moral high ground. We’re condescending to people who are beneath us, so that we can better understand their situation. I don’t think that is how any of us consciously go about interacting with “the other,” but I can certainly see how it may be perceived that way. And, if I’m being honest, sometimes that’s the way it feels.

Not all people have ignored me when I’ve reached out for help in understanding their perspectives. Samantha Field, who identifies as a bisexual woman, was kind enough to reach out to her community when I asked for podcast recommendations. It turns out that asking this one question has profoundly transformed my access to voices from the LGBTQ community in particular. Emmy Kegler, one of Samantha’s connections, sent me a slew of recommendations. Over the last few months, I’ve been listening to these podcasts–and they are continually transforming the way I think about God and sexuality.

So, yes, sometimes asking for help can go a long way. I don’t think most of the people from these marginalized communities are opposed to helping. Sometimes, they are (rightly) suspicious of our motives–and they don’t want to be suckers. But, more often than not, I think they’re just busy about doing their own good work, and we shouldn’t expect them to set it aside to hold our hands while we cross the street.

If we’ve exhausted all our resources and are still struggling to understand an issue, then I think it’s okay for us to reach out to people and ask what we’re missing. But, let’s at least show them that we’ve been engaged enough to have done some preliminary research. Let’s bring something to the table. Let’s not be so lazy.

I listened to a podcast a few weeks ago in which Robyn Henderson-Espinoza made the claim that “liberation is not about equality.” I didn’t quite understand the nuance of the statement, so I reached out to her on Twitter to ask what she meant. I did not really understand her response, so I asked for more material. She was kind enough to direct me toward some areas to explore.

I was letting this topic stew when I encountered the Twitter exchange that prompted this post. After thinking about what was really going on between the lines of this conversation, I thought about how I had reached out to Robyn. Then, I decided abruptly to Google “Liberation vs. Equality.” The first four search results were articles dealing explicitly with the issue about which I had been confused. I read those articles, and now the whole thing makes a lot more sense to me.

Sometimes, it really is as easy as doing a simple web search.

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I’m a Christian and an LGBT Ally: Here’s Why…

Well, I guess this is it: I’m officially coming out of the closet.

No, I’m not gay or transgender or bisexual. It just so happens that I conform to traditional norms in my sexual orientation. However, I am in this post “coming out” in full support of those who don’t.

I don’t mean to appropriate the “coming out” designation, as if I can in any way compare what I’m doing here to the courage LGBT folks must summon to risk the scrutiny and shame of revealing this piece of their identity to the world. Let’s be clear–comparatively speaking, my “coming out” is a walk in the park on a sunny day. Really. I’ve got it easy.

That being said, there is some risk for people like me too. I come from a very fundamentalist Christian background. I grew up in a socially conservative denomination and, when I became an adult, entered into a more socially conservative sect so strict that it counted my childhood beliefs as heresy. In short, homosexuality has always been considered sinful in my religious tradition and to suggest otherwise would be compromising my Christian values to appease changing cultural norms. Up until a little over a year ago, I didn’t know there was any other way to be a Christian.

At this point, most of the people I associate with would consider themselves “progressive Christians” (yeah, believe it or not, that’s a thing). Nevertheless, I still have many family members and old friends who would be disappointed, indignant, appalled, and outraged by this revelation. Nevertheless, it is what it is. It’s who I am now, and it’s where I am now; there’s no use pretending otherwise. So, in case there is confusion, let me be as clear as I possibly can:

I fully accept people who identify as lesbian, gay, transgender, bisexual, and queer as children of God who–to the same extent as Christians who do not identify as such–are forgiven, redeemed, saved, justified and liberated while not being in any way condemned for their sexual orientation. Whether manifest in mere inclinations or in actual behaviors, I do not believe that sexual proclivities (provided the relationship, if there be one, is consensual) has any affect whatsoever on a human being’s standing before God. Homosexuality is not a sin.

How I Got Here…

For the most part, my shift in thinking on this particular issue is the result of a broader shift in my understanding of what it means to be a person of faith. In 2013, I underwent a deeply humbling experience that caused me to rethink the “know-it-all” mentality with which I’d been living my life and instead adopt a posture of openness and curiosity. While this shift wasn’t necessarily religious in nature, I was a religious person so, naturally, it bled over into my religious life.

I started questioning the particular branch of Christianity I was in, and then why I should even remain a Christian at all. I dove headfirst into the most reputable sources I could find on church history, Biblical criticism, and postmodern theology. All of that wasn’t too long ago, and I’m still working out what I believe and why it matters. In my searching, though, one of the many things I began to reconsider was whether or not I could find any ethical justification for an opposition to LGBT lifestyles.

Then, the Pulse shooting happened. At that point, I think I had already made up my mind about full acceptance of the LGBT community, but the massacre in Orlando really forced me to make it explicitly clear–if only to myself. Around that time, I started following LGBT theologians on Twitter–people like Broderick Greer, Austen Hartke, Dianna Anderson, and Samantha Field. I started hearing heartbreaking stories about the experiences of LGBT people in the church–the abuse, the shame, and the social ostracism. The more I listened to them on their terms, the more absurd it seemed that I could have ever been part of a system that fostered such painful experiences while still calling myself a Christian.

Somehow, I have grown up with the uncanny ability to disassociate the compassionate Jesus of the gospels who befriended the outcasts of society and scoffed at prioritizing ritual purity with the Jesus of American Evangelicalism who calls me first and foremost to ritual purity and only then to being nice to the outsiders if they too are willing to conform. Well, not anymore. I’ve gone back to the Jesus of the gospels.

The Jesus of the gospels was all about love. He served people instead of shaming them. He healed, fed, comforted, and forgave. He didn’t have a bad word to say about anyone… Okay, that isn’t true. Actually, Jesus did criticize some people. But he reserved his judgment for the religious elite–the self-righteous hypocrites who looked down on everybody else. To a large extent, the gospel narratives show us a Jesus who came not to save people from their sins–but rather a Jesus who came to save people from the sins of others. That’s the Jesus I believe in; that’s the Jesus I seek to follow.

I’ve been wrestling for a long time with whether or not I should write this post. First, I am admittedly dreading the potential upheaval and I really don’t want to have those debates. I’m still working out my ideas about God and faith, and I’m not sure my nuanced, speculative spirituality is a rhetorical match for the dogmatic certainty of others.

Also, though, I don’t want to make this issue about me. A post like this is a bit pretentious and self-aggrandizing. “Ooh, look at me, I’m being all vulnerable and stuff. Can I have my cookie now?” I feel like, as I’m expressing my fears over the rejection and criticism I’m likely to encounter, the entire LGBT community is going, “Hold my beer…”

Ultimately, I made up my mind about “coming out” when the following tweet crept across my feed:

I am not trying to stir up controversy or cause trouble. I’m not trying to start a fight with other Christians about what the Bible really says or whose side Jesus is really on. For me, this isn’t about a debate between conservative and liberal strains of Christianity. Rather, it’s about letting people in the LGBT community know that I fully value them as human beings. It’s about me making it public that I’m on their side, because I believe Jesus would be too…

“But the Bible says…”

Okay, time to address the elephant in the room. Presumably, the reason why Christians are so opposed to same-sex relationships is that they are condemned in the Bible–the sacred scriptures of the Christian faith.

I’m not going to go into detail on this–you can google it if you are unfamiliar with the texts, but there are a smattering of passages where “homosexuality” is condemned in the Bible: from Leviticus 20:13 where the law of Moses calls for the death of one who “lies with a man as with a woman” to 1 Corinthians 6:9 where Paul  lists “men who have sex with men” among things such as theft, greed, and slander that will keep people out of the “kingdom of God.” For the person who wants to take the Bible seriously, these passages can be rather problematic.

That’s the story I grew up with, anyway. And, although I’ve felt the growing disinclination to condemn same-sex relationships for years, I didn’t think I could because that would mean throwing out the Bible. God said it; I believe it; that settles it–even if it hurts people. Truth is truth…isn’t it?

Well, it turns out that interpreting the scriptures is a much more nuanced art form than I was raised to believe. The true meaning of the text (however we define it) doesn’t just jump off the page when we read it today in 21st century English. To get an accurate reading, you’ve got to understand ancient languages and cultures, as well as the motives of the authors. A deeper reading of scriptures provides alternative understandings for all sorts of issues. In particular, as scholars, theologians, and ministers have wrestled with the “homosexuality” passages, non-traditional interpretations have emerged.

For example, it might be suggested that condemnation of “homosexuality” in Leviticus can only be understood under the broader umbrella of “purity” laws for their community at the time. And, perhaps same-sex relationships were condemned so strongly because procreation was important for the continuing growth of the Israelite nation.

Or, if we look at the condemnation of homosexuality in the New Testament, it can be understood in terms of the Roman cultural custom of the day for men to have younger male sex slaves. The word Paul uses in Corinthians, it is often pointed out, is a word he invented. So, perhaps he was speaking of a particular form of same-sex relationships rather than same-sex relationships in general.

If you’d like to see a more in-depth analysis of the “homosexuality” passages, I recommend checking out this article. Or, read God and the Gay Christian by Matthew Vines. Now, before you bristle at this kind of scholarship as liberal propaganda or the work of Satan, think about this…

Perhaps the traditional reading of scriptures is right; perhaps same-sex relationships are sins that need to be repented of. But, before you rush to that conclusion, I want you to seriously ask yourself a very important question–and say it out loud if you need to: “What if I’m wrong?”

If you don’t feel the slightest bit of hesitation when you ask yourself this question, you’re probably blissfully unaware of the suffering endured by the LGBT community as a result of discrimination–much of it coming from people who claim to be Christians.

You probably don’t know that the rate of suicide among LGB youth is 4 times the rate of that among straight youth. And, if you think that’s just because they know they’re guilty of sin, you probably aren’t aware that suicide among LGB youth whose families reject them is 8 times higher than that among LGB youth who report no rejection from their families. Do you even care that, each time an LGBT person is victimized, their chances of inflicting self-harm increase by 2.5 times?

The harm your view is causing LGBT people might be worth thinking about because, if you are wrong when you condemn them to shame in this life and punishment in the next, where exactly do you think your soul is going to end up?

If for nothing else than for concern over your own salvation, you might want to ask, “Is condemnation of same-sex relationships really worth the risk?” When it comes to this new take on Pascal’s wager, I think I’ll leave this section with a gem I heard recently from my pastor–just something to think about as you are trying to decide your own position on the issue:

I would rather have to explain to God why I let someone into heaven than why I kept someone out.

I’m sorry it took me so long…

In conclusion, I would just like to briefly address anyone from the LGBT community who might be reading this. I’m sorry for any pain that I’ve caused you–whether overtly or merely by being complicit in your persecution. I now believe that you are fully loved and accepted by God, to the same degree as anyone else. I also don’t think you need me to tell you that; you are your own person and don’t need my validation. I just want you to know that I’m here now, and I’m listening.

I hope you’ll forgive me for taking so long to come to this conclusion and make it known to the public. I still have a lot to learn, and I can only ask for grace as I seek to be a better human being. Please be patient with me. I will mess up. I will get it wrong. I will look the other way when you need me to intervene. I am weak, but I will try my best to be strong. I can’t promise that I won’t disappoint you in the future but, for now, I can honestly say with every fiber of my being that I am proud to be an ally.

Image credit: I google searched for a “rainbow cross” and happened across an article regarding the one pictured above. Apparently, someone had been anonymously chaining a large wooden cross to posts on “Gay Street” in New York–presumably sending a passive aggressive message of condemnation to the LGBT folks living there. The people from the community reacted by creating their own cross and covering it with a rainbow–sending a message of love and inclusion instead. The story seemed rather apropos for my thoughts in this post, so I thought it would be the perfect image to use…

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Sometimes We Lose Our Way

Sometimes we lose our way.

Three years ago today, I published my curiosity manifesto. At the time, I had recently gone through a humbling experience that forced me to take a good, hard look at the approach I was taking in life. As I took a step back to think about the kind of person I really wanted to be, ideas started pouring in and I decided to write them down. Three weeks later, I had finished my first book–a sort of pop-psychology self-help book I called simply THE CURIOSITY MANIFESTO.

As the months passed, I realized that this piece of writing meant more to me than I had originally thought it would. I had thought that I had a great and powerful message for the world to hear, and I just had to get it out. I quickly realized, though, that my curiosity manifesto was more of a message for me than it was for anyone else. In writing the book, I had ironed out the kind of person I wanted to be. I had discovered my core value, the focal point around which I wished to build my way of being in the world. That foundation, that ever-present anchor in the storm of shifting values–for me–was curiosity.

Over the next few years, I began deliberately seeking out ways to become more curious. I started listening to people with an open-mind, assuming I had more to learn than I had to teach. I started learning about and trying new things. I started challenging my long-held personal beliefs about the way the world works. For the first time in my life, really, I felt proud of the person I was becoming. I can’t speak for everyone else but, for me, curiosity had become the means of finding a fulfilling life.

And then came the 2016 election. Like so many others, I got sucked in to the rage and hysteria. As a candidate, I had found Donald Trump’s demeanor so repulsive that–over time–I lost my center. I became adamantly outspoken against Trump, and I stopped being curious. In the months since Trump was elected President of the United States, I’ve had some time to step back and rethink my outrage. And here’s my conclusion:

I was wrong.

It’s not that I believe that I was wrong about Donald Trump. Ideology aside, his basic approach goes against everything I believe in. But I believe wholeheartedly that I was wrong about the way I approached him and his supporters. Too often, I found myself closing my mind and opening my mouth. I stopped listening. And I began selectively seeking out information that confirmed my beliefs.

So, I would like to take this moment to apologize to anyone supportive of or sympathetic to Donald Trump that I may have offended in my many angry tirades over the last year. You all deserve a better listener. But, more to the point, I want to apologize to myself. I’ve deviated from the path and gotten lost in the wilderness. It’s time I come back home, because I deserve a better me. I can’t promise that I’ll turn things around and all of a sudden drop this political angst that has been building up in me over the last year, but I can promise that I will try.

Now, I also want to take a moment to recognize the nuanced nature of such a confession. I have many liberal friends who are still at war with Trump and his supporters, and I think some of them may view such a gesture as nothing more than faint-hearted appeasement. To some, I may be coming to terms with the error of my ways but, to others, I am giving up the good fight. While the mantra “Resist!” continues to ring out loudly from hoards of protestors throughout the nation, I am quietly offering a new mantra for engaging with political foes in Trump’s America: “Reflect.”

Surely, there is a line at which injustices became so egregious that level-headedness becomes a euphemism for acquiescence. As someone who is privileged in many ways that others aren’t, I do not want to sit idly by in silence as marginalized groups are deprived of their basic rights. I don’t want to try to reason with a monster, and I do want to continue to stand up for those who have no one to advocate for them. I want to be curious. I want to be sensible, prudent, and sober-minded. But I also recognize that such a posture is a luxury that some simply cannot afford.

So I offer no condemnation to those who feel they must continue to fight. I don’t know any more than anyone else about how this is all going to play out. I may be greatly indebted to the “resistors” as time goes by, or I may look back and think they took things too far. But, regardless, I want to be clear: this confession is not about what I think others should or should not do. This is about me. I have not been true to myself, and it’s time I make that right.

This shift does not mean that I’m going to all of a sudden agree with Trump supporters or recognize every point offered by “the other side” as equally valid. But it does mean that I’m going to stop seeing things as “my side” and “the other side.” I’ve stopped following heavily liberal media and have started following moderately conservative media. I’ve reconnected on Facebook with many of those who I shut out during the election. And I’m sincerely trying to understand the reasons behind people’s beliefs before I condemn them or ridicule them.

So, that’s it. Just needed to get this off my chest. I need to find my center again.

If I’ve struck a nerve, though, and you are kind of feeling the same way, I invite you to come live the curious life with me. In a nut shell, it’s just about approaching life with more of an open mind. I still believe in the power of curiosity; I just need to go back to putting that belief into practice. If you want, feel free to join me.

Never stop searching.

Never stop learning.

Never stop growing.

Stay curious.

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